How to distinguish the quality of fabrics 1. Natural fi […]
How to distinguish the quality of fabrics
1. Natural fiber
Cotton, hemp, wool, and silk are the four traditional natural fibers, which belong to plant fibers and animal fibers respectively. Plant fiber is composed of cellulose and lignin. Generally, it is acid but not alkali. You can use alkaline soap or neutral lotion when washing. Animal fiber, mainly composed of protein, is easy to denature in acid-base environment. Therefore, animal fiber is not suitable for cleaning with acid-base lotion. It is best to dry clean or use neutral lotion, and not to use bleach. Cellulosic fabrics such as cotton, linen, and wool are hydrophilic. In the dyeing process, they are subject to tension to cause skewing in form. After washing, they are prone to swelling and shrinking.
cotton. Advantages: ventilation, ventilation, good moisture absorption, easy to wash, soft touch; disadvantages: easy to wrinkle, washing will shrink. Existing combed cotton, anti-shrink and anti-wrinkle processed cotton fabrics.
Because the gloss of cotton is not good, it must be mercerized when it has to be given gloss for the purpose. Cotton can not be used with fluorescent detergent, and can not be soaked in bleach.
Flax/Linen. Flax generally refers to flax this kind of plant or rough linen cloth, Linen generally refers to linen cloth, linen thread, linen products. Advantages: ventilated, breathable, better gloss than cotton; Disadvantages: easy to produce wrinkles, creases are not easy to recover. Cool to the touch and hard. Identification method of flax: the burning effect is the same as that of burning hemp rope, it will produce white smoke, and it will be grayish white after burning.
Ramie. It is a special product in my country. The moisture absorption and air permeability of ramie fiber is about 3-5 times that of cotton fiber. The world-famous Liuyang summer cloth is a handmade product of ramie fiber.
Bamboo. Bamboo fiber is a cellulose fiber extracted from naturally grown bamboo. It is the fifth largest natural fiber after cotton, hemp, wool and silk. Bamboo fiber has good air permeability, instant water absorption, strong abrasion resistance and good dyeability.
Wool fiber Wool. Advantages: good moisture absorption, not easy to wrinkle; Disadvantages: easy to shrink, can not be stirred with a washing machine, easy to be pests. Existing shrink-proof processed wool and cool wool. Common wool fibers are: Angora goat wool, also known as Mohair; Cashmere, cashmere, mostly called cashmere or cashmere in China; Merino wool, also known as Merino wool. Identification method of wool fiber: the burning taste is the same as singeing hair, curly, black fluffy ashes and fragile after burning.
Silk is the longest natural fiber. Advantages: delicate and soft, good gloss, strong moisture absorption, not easy to wrinkle; Disadvantages: vulnerable to insects, not resistant to sunlight. The composition of real silk chiffon is 100% silk. The scientific name of chiffon is georgette-georgette is also called georgette crepe. It is a kind of silk fabric woven with strong twist crepe warp and crepe weft (with real silk chiffon, there is Imitated silk chiffon, its composition is generally 100% polyester. Chiffon and georgette come from French CHIFFE and Georgette. The identification method of silk: the smell of burning is the same as that of singeing hair. After burning, it will be black and fluffy and fragile.
2. Regenerated cellulose fiber
Regenerated cellulose fiber is a regenerated fiber made by chemical methods using natural cellulose as raw material. In the American FTC fiber classification, all those that use regenerated fiber molecules as raw materials and the hydrogen content in the hydroxyl group does not exceed 15% belong to Rayon. The Chinese translation is 嫘萦, and its Chinese translation is derived from the invention of sericulture in Chinese legends. The ancestor of Lei came. It should be noted that the European ISO does not accept the name Rayon. The advantages of Rayon: ventilation, air permeability, good moisture absorption, easy to wash, soft touch; disadvantages: easy to wrinkle, shrink when exposed to water, and weaken fiber strength. Much like cotton fabrics, it is recommended to dry clean, if washed with water, neutral lotion should be used. Rayon's identification method: the burning effect is the same as burning paper, which produces white smoke and turns gray after burning.
High-strength rayon appeared in the early 1940s. For example, lyocell fiber, which uses natural wood pulp as raw material and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent, is used for wet spinning regenerated cellulose fiber. It is characterized by high strength and its strength is close to polyester; it absorbs water quickly, and its water absorption speed is nearly twice that of cotton, and its moisture regain is better than cotton; its own fibrillation produces peach skin effect. There are two popular Lyocell brands on the market: the British and Austrian LENZING LYOCELL. The high humidity coefficient rayon appeared in the 1950s. Such as Modal fiber (Modal), Polynosick. The raw material of Modal is European beech wood. Due to the high cost of Modal textile technology, the Modal currently on the market is basically a blend of Modal and cotton, or directly impersonated by rayon (sometimes good-quality rayon can also be used as Modal. Modal with poor quality) , The effect is worse than good rayon fabric). There is a view that Modal is a brand of the Austrian Lenzing company. In fact, Modal is an ISO fiber classification and anyone can use it. Polynosic is derived from the refined wood pulp of natural conifers. It is mostly produced in Japan and is called multi-element fiber in Taiwan.
3. Synthetic fiber
In synthetic fibers, there are many hydrophobic substances. Static electricity will be generated due to friction during wearing, and dust in the air will be attracted by static electricity, so it is susceptible to pollution.
Nylon, also known as nylon and nylon, is the trade name of polyamide fiber, and is the first synthetic fiber to appear in the world. Its characteristic is strong and wear-resistant. Advantages: good gloss, high tensile strength, easy to wash and dry, no shrinkage and no wrinkles; Disadvantages: no ventilation, static electricity, easy pilling, no water absorption, uncomfortable wearing. Suitable for various lotions, but should be dried in a cool place. The identification method of nylon: Slowly melts and burns, it has a pungent taste, like celery, and the ashes are brown lumps.
Polyester, the old translation is indeed good, indeed cool, also known as dacron, is the trade name of a series of products such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyester fiber when they are spun into fibers. Its performance is closest to silk. It can be used to make artificial silk chiffon. Its characteristics are crisp and non-wrinkle. Advantages: easy to wash and dry, no shrinkage and no wrinkles; disadvantages: static electricity, easy to pilling, poor dyeability and moisture absorption, and uncomfortable wearing. Suitable. Various lotions, but should be dried in a cool place. The identification method of polyester: the burning effect is the same as burning paper, white smoke, grayish white after burning.
Acrylic fiber is the trade name of polyacrylonitrile fiber in my country. It usually refers to a synthetic fiber made from a copolymer of more than 85% of acrylonitrile and the second and third monomers. Its performance is most like wool, but it does not have its softness, so it is also called "synthetic wool", "cashmilon" or "cashmilon". Acrylic fibers include Acrylic, Raschel and so on. Its characteristic is bulkiness and light fastness. Advantages: light weight, fluffy, warm, no shrinkage and no wrinkles; disadvantages: static electricity, pilling. Suitable for various lotions, but should be dried in a cool place. The identification method of acrylic fiber: slowly melts and burns, has a fragrant smell, and the ashes are round black hard masses. Fibers made by spinning copolymers with acrylonitrile content between 35% and 85% are called modified polyacrylonitrile fibers or modified acrylic fibers.
Acetate fiber is a rayon yarn developed and manufactured by the British. It is a semi-synthetic fiber made by chemically combining cellulose and acetic acid. It has a luster similar to spun silk, has strong stretchability like wool, and is not easy to wrinkle. Dry cleaning should be used. The properties of cellulose triacetate and cellulose acetate are basically the same, but the morphological stability and thermal properties when wet are improved.
Metal fiber: The ductile metals such as copper, silver and gold can be drawn into fibers, and the more ductile metals such as nickel, aluminum and iron can be extruded or deposited by means. The trade name of metal fiber is Lurex, which is the shiny gold and silver yarn that is common on clothes nowadays.